On-farm anaerobic digestion (AD) has been promoted due to its improved environmental performance, which is based on a number of life cycle assessments (LCA). However, the influence of site-specific conditions and practices on AD performance is rarely captured in LCA studies and the effects on C and N cycles are often overlooked. In this paper, a new model for AD (SIMSWASTE-AD) is described in full and tested against a selection of available measured data.
The rapid loss of sea ice in the Arctic is one of the most striking manifestations of climate change. As sea ice melts, more open water is exposed to solar radiation, absorbing heat and generating a sea-ice–albedo feedback that reinforces Arctic warming. Recent studies stress the significance of this feedback mechanism and suggest that ice-free summer conditions in the Arctic Ocean may occur faster than previously expected, even under low-emissions pathways.
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